References & Further Reading

May 25, 2013 by

References & Further Reading


Available Information

  • Many pet stores and libraries do not have the most current resources and, therefore, do not have the most accurate hedgehog information.
  • Unfortunately, some of the books on the market and web pages on the Internet are out of date, and contain inaccurate and even harmful information.


  • Antigone Means-Burleson published a book titled The Hedgehog Primer. This book has all the latest and most up to date information concerning hedgehogs and hedgehog care. This book may be purchased directly from Hedgehog Valley or here at Millermeade Farms.
  • My favorite book that can be found in pet stores is by Dawn Wrobel with Dr. Susan Brown: Hedgehogs: Guide to a Happy, Healthy Pet. It is a small, hardback book published by Howell House (copyright 1997).
  • Reeve, N: Hedgehgos. T & AD Poyser, London 1997.


  • Hedgehog Central
  • The International Hedgehog Association
  • Hedgehog Valley
  • The Hedgehog Welfare Society
  • Laura Ledet or
  • Pet Info Packets: Hedgehogs
  • Websites No Longer Available
  • (printed 1/20/99)


  • Ducommun, Debbie. The Toxicity of Pine and Cedar Shavings. 9/3/02
  • Graesser, Donnasue. Mortality and Longevity Update! Boys vs. Girls. IHA News. September-December 2005.
  • McLeod, Lianne, DVM. Your Guide to Exotic Pets. Top 10 Alternatives to Cedar and Pine Shavings. 06/21/07
  • Miller, Lucinda. Facts You Should Know About Hedgehogs. Ohio 4-H Small Animal Hedgehog Fact Sheet. 1998.
  • Loane, Becca. Quilling. 8/13/07
  • Bennett, Avery
  • Pet Product News
  • Standing Bear
  • Walker’s Mammals of the World.
  • The Smithsonian Institute Mammals of The World
  • Heather Johnson at

Veterinary Professional Articles Used

  • Hoefer HL: Clinical Approach to the Pet Hedgehog. In Proceedings of the Atlantic Coast Veterinary Conference, 2001.
  • Lightfoot T: Dermatopathy in Hedgehogs. Exotic DVM 1998 Premiere Issue

Other Veterinary Professional Articles and Books

  • Allen ME: The nutrition of insectivorous mammals. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Oakland, CA 1992, pp 113-115
  • Arnemo, J.M.; soli N.E.: chemical immobilization of free-ranging European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). J.Zoo Wildl. Med. 26 (2): 246-251; 1995.
  • Bedford JM, Mock OB, Nagdas, SK, Winfrey, VP, Olson GE, Reproductive characteristics of the African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (2000) 120, 143-150
  • Benenson AS, ed. Salmonellosis. In: Control of communicable diseases manual. 16th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1995:410-15.
  • Bennett, RA. University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine; Gainesville, fL 32610-0126 (*)
  • Brodie, E.D. III et al.: Breeding the African Hedgehog Atelerix pruneri in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 22. the Zoological society of London, London, England 1982; pp 195-197.
  • Boeuer WJ: Insectivora, in Wallach J, Boeuer WJ (eds): Diseases of exotic Animals, edical and Surgical Management. Philadelphia, Saunders, pp 653-662.
  • Brown, S.A.; Rosenthal, K.L.: Self-aAssesment Color Review of small Mammals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1997; pp 14-15
  • Buergelt CD: Neoplasms in captive hedgehgs. Vet Med 96 (7): 524-527 2001.
  • Bunnell, T. The Importance of Faecal Indices in Assessing Gastrointestinal Parasite Infestation and Bacterial Infection in the Hedehog (Erinaceus europaeus).
  • Bunnell, T. Tea Tree antiseptic cream: A new treatment for ringworm and sarcoptic mange in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association, July 2000, Vol 19, No. 2, pp 29-31
  • Bunnell, T. Treatment for ringworm and sarcoptic mange in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). The Rehabilitator, British Wildlife Rehabilitation Council, Newsletter 30, Winter 2000
  • Bunnell, T. An effective, harmless treatment for tick (Ixodes hexagonus).
  • Bunnell, T. Susceptibility of juvenile hedgehogs to disease; some observations.
  • Butler r. Monotremes and marsupials: bacterial diseases. In: Fowler ME, ed. Zoo and wild animal medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Company, 1986;575
  • Campbell T: Intestinal Candidiasis in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) Exotic Pet Practice Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 p 79
  • Campbell T: Uterine Neoplasia in two African hedgehogs. Exotic Pet Practice Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 page 31
  • Canada Communicable Disease Report. African pygmy Hedgehog – Associated Salmonella Tilene in Canada. 1 September 1997. pp129-132. Vol. 23-17
  • Carpenter, J.W. et al.: Hedgehogs. Exotic animal Formulary, 2nd Ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa
  • CDC. African pygmy hedgehog-associated salmonellosis. MMWR 1995;44:462-64
  • deMaar, t.W. et al.: Chagas’ disease in an African Hedgehog. Proc. Am assoc. Zoo vet./Assoc. reptilian amphibian Vet., Pittsburgh, Pa., 1194’pp 151-153.
  • Done LB, Dietze M, Crafield M, et al: Necropsy lesions by body systems in African hedgehogs: Clues to clinical diagnosis. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Oakland, CA 1992, pp 110-112
  • Donnelly T, Nastase R. Skin Lesions in an African Hedgehog. Lab Animal Volume 29, No 7 pp 21-22.
  • Fairley, JA. Hedgehog Hives. Arch Dermatol/ vol 135, May 1999 pg 561-563
  • Fons, R.; thenius, e.: Insectivores. Grzimek’s encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol 1 (H.C.B. Grzimek, ed). McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, N.Y., 1990; pp 416-519.
  • Graczyk, T.K. et al.: fatal cryptosporidiosis in a juvenile captive African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). J. Parasitol. 84 (1):178-180;1998.
  • Graffam WS, Fitzpatrick, MP, Dierenfeld ES. Fiber Digestion in the African White-Bellied Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris): A Preliminary Evaluation. The Journal of Nutrition Vol 128 (12) 1998. 2671S-2673S
  • Graesser, DS. Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome in African Pygmy Hedgehogs (Atelerix spp.) Journal of exotic Pet Medicine Volume 15, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 59-65.
  • Gregory, M.W.; stoker, L: Hedgehogs. Manual of Exotic Pets. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, U.K., 1991; pp 63-68.
  • Hamlen H: Retro-orbital blood collection in the AFrian hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Lab Anim July/Aug, 1997, pp34-35.
  • Hoefer HL: Clinical Approach to the African hedgehog. Proc. North Am. Vet. Conf., Eastern States Veterinary Assoc, Gainesville, FL, 1999; pp 836-838.
  • Hoefer HL: Clinical Approach to the Pet Hedgehog. Atlantic Coast Veterinary Conference 2001
  • Hoefer HL: Hedgehogs. In Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim Pract 24 (1) pp 113-120, 1994.
  • Hoefer HL: Hedgehogs. Small Anim Pract 24:113-120, 1994.
  • Hoyt R: A review of the husbandry ad reproduction of the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Proc American Assoc of Zoological Parks and Aquariums. Minneapolis, 1986, pp 85-95.
  • Isenbugel E, Bamgarner RA: Diseases of the Hedgehog, in fowler, ME (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Current Therapy, ed 3. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1993, pp 29-302
  • Johnson-Delaney CA: Hedgehogs, in Johnson-Delaney CA (ed): Exotic Companion Medicine Handbook. Wingers Publishing. Lake Worth, Fla, 1996, pp1-14.
  • Johnson-Delaney CA: Jaw swelling in an African pygmy hedgehog. Exotic Pet Practic Volume 3 issue 8 August 1998 pg 63
  • Johnson-Delaney CA: Quill loss in a Hedgehog. Exotic Pet Practice Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 page 7
  • Keymer, I.F. et al.: zoonoses and other findings in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus): A survey of mortality and review of the literature. Vet. Rec. 128 (11): 245-249, 1991.
  • Larsen RS, Carpenter JW: Husbandry and medical management of African hedgehogs. Vet Med 94 (10): 877-888, 1999.
  • Lightfoot TL: Therapeutics of African pygmy hedgehos and praire dogs. Vet Cln North Am: Exotic Anim Pract 3(1):155-172. 2000
  • Lightfoot TL: Dermatopathy in Hedgehogs. Exotic DVM. Premiere Issue. 1998. pg 12
  • Meyer, D.J. et al.: appendix: Normal values and conversion tables. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Interepreation and Diagnostics. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992; pp 3237-336.
  • Ness RD: Clinical pathology and sample collection of exotic small mammals. Vet Clin North Am: Exotic Anim Pract 2(3):591-620. 1999.
  • Palmer, A.C. et al.: Paralysis in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) associated with demyelination. Vet. Rec. 143 143 (20):550-552;1998.
  • Peauroi, J.r. et al.: Multicentric skeletal sarcomas associated with probable retrovius particles in two African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). Vet. Pathol. 31 (4): 481-484;1994
  • Philpot, C.M.; Bowen, R.G.: Hazards from hedgehogs: Two case reports with a survey of the epidemiology of hedgehog ringworm. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 17 (3):156-158: 1992.
  • Powers LV: Subcutaneous Implantable Catheter for Fluid Administration in an African pygmy Hedgehog. Exotic DVM 4.5 November 2002. pp 14-15
  • Raymond, J.T. et al.: Corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog. J. Wildl. Dis. 34 (2):397-399;1998
  • Raymond JT, Garner MM: Spontaneous tumors in captive African hedgehos (Aterlerix albiventris): A retrospective study. J Comp Pathol 124(2-3):128-132, 2001.
  • Raymond JT, White MR: Necropsy and histopathologic findings in 14 African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris); A retrospective study. J Zoo Wild Med 30(2):273-277. 1999.
  • Reeve N: Hedgehos. London, T & AD Poyser, 1994, pp 214-225.
  • Rivera RY, Janovitz, EB. Journal Of Wildlife Diseases, 28 (1), 1992, pp. 148-150
  • Smith AJ: Husbandry and medicine of African hedgehogs (atelerix albiventris). J Small Exotic Animal med 2:21-28, 1992.
  • Smith, A.J.: Husbandry and nutrition of hedgehogs. Vet. Clin. North Am. (exotic anim. Pract.) 2 (1): 127-141; 1999
  • Smith AJ: General husbandry and medical care of hedgehogs. Current Veterinary Therapy X111:1128-1133. 2000
  • Smith AJ: General husbandry and medical care of hedgehogs. Vet. Clincal of North American Exotic Anim. Practice, V2, 1999: 127-141
  • Smith, A.J.: Medical management of hedgehogs. Proc. 21st Waltham/OSU Syymp., Waltham USA, Inc., Vernon, Calif., 1997; pp57-61.
  • Smith, AJ: Neonatology of the hedgehog (atelerix albiventris). J Small exotic Anim Med 3:15, 1995.
  • Staley, E.C. et al.: Use of permethrin as a miticide in the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 36 (2): 24-29;1988
  • Stocker, L.: Medication for Use in the Treatment of Hedgehogs. Marshcliff, Ayelbury, U.K., 1992.
  • Suedmeyer WK: Husbandry and diseases of hedgehogs. Exotic Pet Practice Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 page65-66
  • Tappe, J.P. et al.: Systemic Mycobacterium marinum infection in a European hedgehog. JaVMA 183 (11):1280-1281. 1983.
  • Verlander, JW.: renal physiology. Textbook of Veterinary Physiology (J.D. Cunningham, ed.) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1992; pp489-529.
  • Wallach, JD,: Boever, W.J.: Insectivora. Diseases of exotic animals. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1983; pp653-662
  • Wrobel, D.: African hedgehogs: Breeding colony health issues. Proc. 5th Annu. West. Exotic Zoo Anim. Med. Conf., Madison, Wis., 1996; pp 103-107.

Special Thanks

  • Special thanks to the following people for their tips, tidbits and editing advice:
  • Nicole Gendler-Martin of Hedgehogs in Space
  • Crystal O’Reilly hedgehog owner and Copy Chief of The State News (2007)
  • The Bartel Family
  • Lori Keller
  • Michelle Mullikins of Prickly Creek Exotics
  • Nicole Belval of Prickly Pair Hedgehogs
  • Charles Perrine hedgehog enthusiast and Millermeade Farms customer

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